GENOMICS- Proteomics, Materiomics/Cytomics

Brief summary - Genomics.


In simple terms, the sum total of all individual organism's gene( arranged/ made of DNA)  is usually called a genome.


Genomics is the study of those genes of a cell and the determination of the entire DNA sequence of organisms.( Its a laboratory process that determines the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome) . It helps us understand the relationships between genes and its a study of the nucleotide sequences, including structural genes, regulatory sequences, and noncoding DNA segments, in the chromosomes of an organism. Genomics is a recent scientific discipline that strives to define and characterize the complete genetic makeup of an organism. Its primary approaches are to determine the entire sequence and structure of an organism's DNA (itsgenome) and then to determine how that DNA is arranged into genes. This second goal is accomplished by determining the structure and relative abundance of all messenger RNAs (mRNAs), the middlemen in genetics that encode individual proteins.


Complete genomes of a virus and a mitochondrion was sequenced  and established long ago. The knowledge of sequencing the entire genomes has created the possibility for the field of functional genomics, mainly concerned with patterns of gene expression during various conditions. Multiple copies of chromosomes, diploid, triploid, tetraploid are found in some organisms..  Genomics has brought us to the threshold of a new era in controlling infectious diseases. These studies will likely lead to the development of new disease prevention and treatment strategies for plants, animals, and humans alike. For instance, understanding pathogen genes, their expression, and their interaction will lead to new antibiotics, antiviral agents, and "designer" immunizations. These new DNA-based immunizations are by-products of genomic research and will undoubtedly eventually replace the traditional vaccines made from whole, inactivated microorganisms. As viruses still kill billions of dollars worth of livestock every year this is highly relevant to domesticated animals. Understanding the genomes of plants and animals has additional benefits.

 Gene mapping should allow us to understand the basis for disease resistance, disease susceptibility, weight gain, and determinants of nutritional value. The use of genomic information provides the opportunity to select optimal environments for the healthy growth of plants and animals, to develop disease-resistant strains, and to achieve improved nutritional value such as with the "golden" rice. Success in these species may well provide important insights needed to improve the health of humans and so on.  WILL UPDATE SHORTLY.